Pioneer Period and Pioneer People of
Fairfield Co., Ohio.
by C. M. L. Wiseman
Publ. F. J.
Heer Printing Co., Columbus, O. 1901
first men to make a substantial or public improvement in
what is now Fairfield County were Ebenezer Zane,
his brother Jonathan and son-in-law John
McIntire. Zane was employed by the
United Sates government in 1796 to open a road from
Wheeling, W. Va., to Maysville, Ky. The work was
completed the following year.
Ebenezer with his Indian guide "Tomepomehala"
and perhaps others, inspected the route and blazed the
way. He then left the execution of the work to Jonathan Zane and John McIntire.
For this work he received in part compensation, a
section of land near the "Standing Stone," on the
In the year 1800 his sons,
Noah and John,
laid out the town of Lancaster and on Nov. 10, of that
year made a public sale of the lots. The sons held
a power of attorney to make the sales and the deeds
therefor. John Zane was then 20 years of
age and Noah 26 years. It was some years
before the lots were all disposed of. In the year
1814, Emanuel Carpenter Jr., purchased of
Zane's heirs, that part of his section south of the
town, beginning at the alley between Chestnut and the
present Walnut street, for $6,782.
The founder of a city, deserves more than a passing
notice. Ebenezer Zane and his two brothers
Silas and Jonathan, were the first
settlers of the Ohio valley, below Pittsburg.
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He was a frontiersman of rare ability, an able
energetic and influential man; and during his life one
of the foremost men of the frontier or of the Ohio
The Zane family were originally from Denmark,
but the American ancestor came to America from England
with William Penn. He was a Quaker and for
some years prominent in the new settlement. Zane
Street, Philadelphia, was named for him.
Becoming obnoxious to his Quaker brethren, he cut loose
from them and emigrated to Virginia, settling on the
south branch of the Potomac, near what is now
Moorefield, Hardy Co., W. Va., then known as Berkeley
County, Virginia. There his descendants, the five
men, who are the subjects of this sketch were born.
Ebenezer, Silas, Jonothan, Andrew and Isaac, and one known sister,
Ebenezer was born Oct. 7, 1747, and grew to manhood
in the Potomac valley. There he was united in
marriage to Elizabeth McColloch, a sister of four
famous brothers, frontiersmen and Indian fighters, Abraham, George, Samuel and
Of these, Samuel was a distinguished man in the
public service and a soldier of marked ability. In
1767 Ebenezer Zane, Silas Zane and Jonathan
made preparation to seek a new home in the Western
country; and in the spring of the following year, Ebenezer, with his brothers, his family, his negro
slaves and other chattels, bid adieu to one of the most
beautiful of Virginia valleys and took up their line of
march for the West. They followed an old trail
from Cumberland to Red Stone, now Brownsville, Pa.,
where they tarried, and spent the winter.
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In the spring of 1769 the three brothers built cabins
at the mouth of Wheeling creek on the Ohio and staked
off claims. To this place, before the close of
navigation, Zane brought his family, negroes,
cattle and horses, by rude boat, of pioneer
construction. This was the founding of the city of
Ebenezer Zane was fortunate in his wife.
No pioneer was ever blessed with a better helpmate.
She was a brilliant, capable woman, equal to any
emergency, and a leader in the trying times in which she
lived. She was born Oct. 30, 1748, and was about
one year her husband's junior. She was a very
capable nurse and could dress a gunshot wound with
skill, using the knife when necessary.
Zanes were wise woodmen, they understood the
Indians and knew how to manage them. If their
advice had been heeded on more than one or two
occasions, many valuable lives would have been saved.
Col. Zane was the recognized leader in his new
settlement during his life. He commanded at Fort
Henry in the siege of 1777, and when the Indians again
visited the Fort in 1782, he placed his brother Col.
Silas Zane in command of the Fort, while he, with
others, took their places in his own block house, sixty
yards from the Fort, where their ammunition was stored.
Col. Zane and his brothers owned all of the good
land for two miles on both sides of the Ohio at
Wheeling. In 1806 he laid out the town of
Bridgeport, and in 1835 his grandson Ebenezer Martin
laid out the city of Martin's Ferry above Bridgeport.
Col. Ebenezer Zane died in the year 1811, aged
64 years, and his body was buried in the cemetery at
Bridgeport. A plain stone slab marks his resting
place. Col. Zane was a disbursing officer
in the army
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of Lord Dunmore and attained the rank of Colonel.
His daughter Catherine was born June 27, 1769 and
married Captain Absalom Martin of the U. S. Army.
Ann was born May 27, 1771, Sarah was born
Feb. 23, 1773, and married John McIntire, a
shoemaker. Noah was born Oct. 1, 1774, Rebecca was born Oct. 10, 1776. She married
John Clarke. Harriett or Esther
was born Oct. 8, 1786, and married Elijah Woods.
Daniel was born Oct. 25, 1788, Jesse, Oct.
5, 1790, John was born April 30, 1780, Samuel
was born May 12, 1782.
John died while yet young men,
Noah lived in Wheeling as late as 1835, Daniel
lived and died on Wheeling Island. His son
Daniel lives there now, near the suspension bridge.
Samuel Zane married Elizabeth Bloomfield and lived and reared a large family west of Bridgeport,
three sons, and eight daughters. His daughter Cynthia E., was the first wife of
Dr. J. L.
Rankin of Bemen, Ohio. Their son resides in
New Mexico. Martha married Frank Burton
of Brownville, Licking County, and now lives a widow in
Columbus. Virginia married Samuel R.
Klotts of Lancaster, now of Columbus. Emma
married George Brown of Somerset, Ohio.
Alice Josephine married Dr. Lewis Gray
and they now reside in Columbus, O.
Catharine married Ezekiel Mills of
Barnesville, Ohio, moved to Iowa and both died there.
Sarah married Ferdinand Moeller of
Zanesville, Ohio, and moved to Newport, Ky.
Narcissa married Samuel Robinson of
Zanesville, and moved to Burlington, Iowa.
Benjamin Franklin, son of Samuel, was a
bachelor and died in Columbus, Ohio.
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Ebenezer, son of Samuel, married Ellen
Barnett of Camden, Preble County, Ohio. Their
son, Lewis Pearl is a clerk in the wholesale
grocery of Samuel Butler, Columbus, Ohio.
Austin Bloomfield Zane, son of Samuel,
married Mary Barnett of Camden, Ohio. They
live in Columbus, Ohio. Their son, Lewis B.,
is in the cigar business with his father in Columbus,
Austin B. was a soldier in the Union army from
Licking County, Ohio.
Rebecca Crawford, a daughter of
Esther Woods, was born on a farm near Martin's Ferry
and now lives, 82 years of age, in Bridgeport, Ohio.
John Clark and wife, Rebecca, lived on a farm in
Wheeling creek, three miles west of Wheeling, Belmont
County, Ohio. Rebecca, a maiden daughter,
lives there now.
Of Colonel Silas Zane we know but little, in
addition to what has been written. He was a bold,
able and gallant co-laborer with his pioneer brothers.
Of Andrew Zane, we know still less. He was
killed while crossing the Scioto, presumably by the
Elizabeth Zane, sister of the five brothers, was
born in Berkeley County, Va., in 1759. She was
educated in Philadelphia, and prior to the siege of Ft.
Henry in 1782, where she immortalized herself; came to
Wheeling on a visit. She was a beautiful girl and
throughout a long life she was an accomplished and
handsome woman, and withal modest and unassuming.
In 1782, when Ft. Henry was invested by hundreds of
savages, the supply of powder became exhausted and it
was necessary for some intrepid individual to make the
attempt to secure a supply form Zane's
block-house, sixty yards distant. This young
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school girl volunteered to undertake the perilous duty.
Her uncle objected but she insisted. Braving the
fire of hundreds of rifles she made her way to the
block-house. There Colonel Ebenezer Zane
tied a table cloth about her waist and emptied into it a
keg of powder. With this burden she bravely faced
what seemed certain death and reached the Fort unharmed.
Her valor saved the brave, unselfish deeds are recorded
She married a Mr. McLaughlin, and he dying she
married a Mr. Clark. A son of the latter
was living as late as 1877.
She is said to have died in St. Clairsville in 1847.
Zane was identified with his brother, Ebenezer,
throughout his life and was one of his most useful and
He was a famous hunter and marksman and was employed as
a hunter by Lord Dunmore for his army. He
superintended the construction of Zane's trace.
He was guide and scout to the army of Gen. William
Crawford in his expedition against the Indians at
Sandusky. He was invited to a council of war
before the fatal battle and advised a retreat. He
knew the Indians better than Crawford and he gave
good reason for his advice. He married and reared
a large family in Wheeling, where he outlived his more
famous brother many years.
the youngest of the Zane brothers when but nine
years of age, was captured by the Wyandott Indians and
carried to their home on the
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Sandusky. The capture
is said to have been made at or near his father's home,
but under what circumstances we cannot state. He
was a captive for seventeen years and endured all of the
hardships of savage life. While a captive he often
met white traders and scouts and was frequently useful
to his own race, by giving advice or timely warning.
We known that he was released prior to the year 1785,
for in that year he was guide and hunter to General
Richard Butler, one of the commissioners to treat
with the Indians of the Northwest territory. For
this service he was handsomely rewarded by the U. S.
government, receiving several sections of good land on
Mad river, near the present town of Zanesfield, Logan
County, Ohio. What he did until the year he
settled upon these lands we do not know. During
this period a daughter married William McColloch,
a nephew of the wife of Ebenezer Zane. They
moved to the present site of Zanesville, where on May 7,
1798, Noah Zane McColloch was born, the first
child born in Zanesville. From Zanesville they
moved, presumably with Isaac Zane, to Mad
river. McCulloch was a soldier of the war
of 1812 and was killed at Brownstown.
Noah Zane, lived a long and useful life
in Logan County, O. He was a man of fine mind, of
superior intelligence, and a splendid conversationalist.
He was a leading citizen of Logan County and a friend
and associate of the prominent men of Bellefontaine.
Frank McCulloch, late member of the Ohio Board of
Public Works, is his son and therefore a great grandson
of Isaac Zane and his Indian wife. Samuel McColloch, Secretary to the Board of Public
Works, is also a son of Noah Zane McCulloch.
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General Isaac Gardner of Bellefontaine married a
grand-daughter of Isaac Zane and his daughter
married General Robert P. Kennedy.
Mrs. Catherine Dawson of Yellow Springs is a great
grand daughter of Isaac Zane.
Sarah McIntire married for a second husband
David Young, a famous pioneer Methodist preacher.
The following well written sketch of the
was found in an old newspaper. The author is
unknown, but is worthy of preservation, as is anything
illuminating the lies of each historic characters as the
The Zane family
was a remarkable one of early days, and some of its
members are historical characters.
There are four brothers, Isaac, Ebenezer, Silas
and Jonathan Zane, who are captured by the
Indians when they were boys and held in captivity for
During the greater part of the period of their enforced
detention the Zanes lived in what is now Eastern
Ohio. Isaac, Ebenezer and Jonathan
were taken to Detroit by their captors and there
exchanged or in some way set at liberty. But the
bonds that held Isaac, the remaining brother,
were of a stouter sort than those of revenge or interest
such as had caused the long captivity of his companions.
Isaac Zane was loved by the comely daughter of
the Wyandot chieftain who was the leader of the tribe
that held, the Zanes in custody. Isaac
was a young man and he wanted to be free. Twice he
escaped and twice he was brought back and treated with
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tenderness by the Indian maiden. But he thought
more of liberty than of woman's love, and so made a
third attempt to escape from the foes that held him in
such high esteem that they could not bear to part with
him. For several days he traveled toward the
rising sun, and finally reached Butler County,
Pennsylvania, and was turning his course toward
Pittsburg when he was met by some hostile Indians.
THE JAWS OF DEATH.
He could run like a deer, but his pursuers were numerous
and some of them who knew the country much better than
he did managed to cut off his retreat, and he was made a
prisoner. This time he fell into the hands of
Indians who were not at all disposed to treat him
kindly. He was securely bound and taken to the
camp of Cornplanter, a famous chieftain.
The tribe which he led was originally ruled by an Indian
Queen of singular power and beauty. This woman,
said the only living descendant of Zane to me
recently, was a superior person. She was born to
rule and govern her people by the force of her
character. She was importuned by many a great
chief, time after time, to become his wife, but she
preferred to cling to her power and dignity. She
was the mother of Cornplanter a reputed son of a
famous white man.
When Isaac Zane was brought before
Cornplanter he was accused of being an
Indian-slayer, and was doomed to be burned at the stake.
His face was painted black, which indicated that a
horrible death was in store for him and he was told that
the next morning would be his last. The frightful
death-whoop sounded through the camp at night
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and malignant squaws leered at the youthful prisoner and
told him of the pain that they were preparing to inflict
upon him. He was unable to sleep until nearly
daylight, when he fell into an uneasy slumber.
Before he awoke he saw in grateful morning vision that
floated before his drowsy eyes, the slender figure of
the Wyandot maiden who loved him and from whose
affectionate demonstrations he had fled. She
smiled upon him and seemed to say "have hope." The
next moment he was roughly aroused by his captors and
led out to die.
A stake had been set in the ground, and he was fastened
to it by a leather thong attached to his ling, with
shrill outcries. A number of squaws pulled out all
of his finger and toe nails, and sharp lighted sticks
were pushed into his bare arms and breast.
Finally a big warrior approached with a firebrand to
light the fagots, and half a dozen guns charged with
salt and coarse powder were leveled at the victim's
body. The death dance was commenced and the fire
had just been applied to the dry sticks when the
war-whoop of the Wyandots rang out in the clear morning
air, and a band of braves led by the chief's own
daughter, dashed into the camp. The maiden saw the
awful peril of the man she loved, and she rode her pony
straight to him and set him free with a single stroke of
her knife. The Wyandots claimed that Zane
was one of their own people, and that they had adopted
him thirteen years ago.
The solid merits of the claim, coupled with the
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beauty of the maiden who led the rescuing party, induced
Cornplanter to set Zane at Liberty.
He returned to his place of captivity in Ohio with the
Wyandots, and was manly enough to marry the maiden,
whose superb, savage love for him had led her to pursue
him through the forests of Pennsylvania, where she
snatched him from a fearful death.
Zanes were all children of the forest and
their long residence with the red men unfitted them for
the restful vocations of peace. They were all
splendid Indian fighters, and found ample employment in
that line till they became middle aged men.
Isaac Zane married the Indian girl he
lived for a time with her tribe and then became a scout
in the Indian wars. His services to the government
were so valuable that he was given a large tract of land
in Logan County. After peace had been restored and
the days of fighting had passed away, Isaac Zane
moved to his land in Logan County, and there spent the
rest of his days. He is buried near Zanesfield,
and has descendants still living in Logan and Champaign
Counties. Zane and his Indian wife
had four or five daughters and three sons. The
daughters were women of fine figure and engaging
features, with skin of very light color. The sons,
on the other hand, of dark complexion, and looked much
like Indians. One of the sons, who was named after
his father, married and was an excellent citizen.
The other, Samuel Zane, had the roving
disposition of his savage ancestors. The McCullochs, Gardiners and some of the
of Western Ohio, are descended from Isaac Zane
and his Indian Princess.
The writer of the foregoing sketch omits the name
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of Andrew. He errs in stating that all were
prisoners, Isaac was the only captive.
The original proprietor of Zanesville, Ebenezer Zane,
was a man who bore a very conspicuous part in his early
history of the Ohio Valley. I find letters
addressed to him in the St. Clair correspondence, and
there is no doubt that he was the most efficient help
that the government found whenever it undertook to whip
Ebenezer Zane was practically the founder of
Wheeling, Martin's Ferry, Bridgeport and Zanesville.
He was given a large tract of land along the Ohio river,
extending northward from Wheeling creek for quite a
distance, and one of his brothers took for his reward
from the government of Wheeling Island, and a third
brother owned land on the opposite side of the river.
McIntire met Sarah Zane when she was
fourteen years of age, and he married her before she was
sixteen, in spite of the stern opposition of her father,
Colonel Zane yielded with grace when he saw that
his consent was no longer needed, and McIntire
seems to have become a favorite with him.
In 1796 Ebenezer Zane was authorized by Congress
to construct a road from Wheeling, W. Va., to Maysville,
Ky., then called Limestone. His younger brother
Jonathan and his son-in-law McIntire did most
of the work. All that was done was to mark out and
clear a road that horsemen could travel. It was
afterwards improved. For this work Zane was
allowed, as compensation, to locate military warrants
upon three sections of land not to exceed one mile
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square each. He took one section where his road
crossed the Muskingum at Zanesville, a second where it
crossed the Hocking at Lancaster, and the third at the
crossing of the Scioto, opposite Chillicothe. The
land about Zanesville he gave to his brother and John
In this manner the site of Zanesville came into the
possession of John McIntire. He put his
removable property on a flatboat at Wheeling, and came
with his family to begin the settlement of the new town
in 1799. He was soon joined by a few families from
Virginia, and soon a little town sprang up. The
first hotel was kept by McIntire.
McIntire did not become an innkeeper because he
wanted to earn a livelihood in that way, but rather to
furnish an attractive place of entertainment for
travelers. His house was a double log cabin, with
a wide passageway between the two ends. He was a
cordial, good-humored man, with a fine southern notion
of hospitality, and his house was a very popular resting
place for travelers. McIntire's house stood
at what is now the corner of Market and Second streets,
a few rods from the river, in a grove of maple trees.
Louis Phillippe was roaming about America
in a melancholy frame of mine while the dazzling star of
Napoleon was rising to its magnificent zenith, the
dejected monarch stayed for a time at McIntire's
cabin. Lewis Cass, referring to the
incident in this book, says: "At Zanesville the party
found the comfortable cabin of Mr. McIntire,
whose name had been preserved in the King's memory, and
whose house was a favorite place of rest and refreshment
for all travelers who at this early period were
compelled to traverse that part of the
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country. And if these pages should chance to meet
the eyes of any of those, who, like the writer, have
passed many a pleasant hour under the roof of this
uneducated but truly worthy and respectable man, he
trusts they will unite in this tribute to his memory."