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  History of Stark County:
 with an outline sketch of Ohio

Chicago: Baskin & Battey,


"I love everything that's old - old friends.
Old times, old manners, old books, old wine."
~ Goldsmith.


     NIMISHILLEN was named after the creek which takes its rise mainly in the township.  There is a tradition that the stream was named from the black alder which grew very abundantly along the bank, the Indian name of which is said to be Missilla.  Prefix to this word ni, which probably meant stream, or water, and you have Nimissilla, since changed into Nimishillen.  Col. Bouquet, a British officers stationed at Fort Du Quesne (now Pittsburgh), in his published narrative of an expedition through this section in 1764, gives the orthography of the stream as Nemenchelus.  Whatever may have been the original meaning of this word, it was evidently the one from which the present name has been derived.
     The first settler in the township was John Bowers, from Maryland.  He entered the south half of Section 32 in 1805, and in the following spring, moved out with his family, and commenced an improvement on the east quarter.  In the winter of 1806-7, his son John, then a stout boy, was taken sick with a fever.  There was no physician within reach, and, as the boy grew worse, and the family had exhausted their efforts to relieve him without success, they sent for the few distant neighbors, who were prompt to respond to the call.  Their added experience and domestic remedies proved alike unavailing, and the poor boy died.  It was a terrible shock to the family.  The mother blamed it all upon the new country, and regretted having left their Eastern home.  In this their hour of affliction, the neighbors were doubly kind, and did what they could to console them.  A rough coffin was made out of an old wagon box, and the boy buried in the woods, some distance from the cabin.  It was a solemn occasion, long remembered by the few in attendance.  A tree was cut so as to fall


* Contributed by Dr. Lew. Slusser

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across the grave, in order to protect the body from the wolves.  Bowers sold this quarter to Bollinger, and made a settlement upon the adjoining quarter west.  While here, he was elected County Commissioner, and afterward Tax Collector, when the office was distinct from that of Treasurer.  He is yet remembered passing over the country from house to house with a cylindrical tin box strapped on his back, collecting the taxes.  Some years later, he sold the balance of his land, and purchased a small improved tract in Canton Township, where he died.  He was buried in Onaburg.
     John Gans, of Fayette County, Penn., entered the southeast quarter of Section 3, in 1806, and settled thereon same year with his family, consisting of a wife and four children.  His son Benjamin, now a resident of Lake, was born in Nimishillen in 1807.  Mr. Gans belonged to the religious sect known as Tunkers (from the German tunken, to dip, more properly, German Baptists.  He was a preacher among them, and a man of considerable influence.  Quite a number of the same denomination followed him from Pennsylvania, and settled in central and eastern portions of the county.  The Tunkers are a peculiar people; don't vote or have anything to do with politics; avoid lawsuits, and in giving testimony, do not swear, but always affirm.  They are opposed to war, and evade a draft.  Usually wear the hair and beard long from a sense of religious duty, and the dress of both sexes is always plain, and never changed to conform to a popular fashion.  As a class, they have not had a very high appreciation of education, especially an educated ministry, believing the Lord would inspire.  It was their custom to hold preaching in barns.  Latterly, they have taken to church buildings of plain construction, and favor a more liberal education.
     The Mathias brothers, Daniel and Jacob and their father, then a widower, came the same year and from the same county in Pennsylvania as did Gans; they settled on Section 14.  Unloading their cooking and farming utensils, the families bivouacked under a tree, until the men erected a cabin.  In October, 1806, a child was born to Mrs. Daniel Mathias.  Henry Sanor made an opening on the same section.  He and Jacob Mathias often told the story of hearing the sound of a horn in the north, when the wind was from that direction and how they were puzzled to know whence it came, or what it meant.  At length they determined to find out.  So one Sunday morning, they started in the direction they had heard the sound, and with an ax blazed their course on both sides of trees they passed, that they might be able to find their way back.  In this way, they proceeded between three and four miles as they supposed, when they heard a dog bark.  Following this sound, they came to the clearing and habitation of Jesse Wileman, and his son Mahlon, which place is now in Marlborough Township.  They had been there some weeks, and thinking there must be other emigrants settling in the vicinity, they bethought themselves of occasionally blowing the horn, in order to communicate to others their whereabouts.
     At this period, Indians were roaming over the country, and during the season of hunting and fishing, it was their custom to camp along the creek.  They were inoffensive, but persistent beggars.  They were particularly fond of whisky, and when once indulged with a taste, there was no cessation to their importunities for more "whisk," as they call it.  Daniel Mathias brought a keg of several gallons from Pennsylvania.  On the occasion of a call from several of the tribe, he treated them each to a drink.  This soon spread among the rest, and it was not long until he was besieged by such numbers that his supply of the stimulant was soon exhausted; nor would they accept his statement that he had no more, until he exhibited the empty keg, when they made fruitless efforts to eke out a few more drops. 
     There was an Indian trail running east and west that passed through the township.  John Thomas, a resident of Columbiana County, had this trail widened so as to make it passable for teams.  It was afterward known as the "Thomas Road, " and was the first highway through the county.  Much of the road still remains in use from Lexington, via Freeburg and Louisville, to Canton.  Penticost & Scott, reputed lawyers, but more properly land speculators, laid out a town on this road, on the southeast quarter of Section 28, and called it "Nimishillentown."  Daniel L. McClure, the surveyor, made a beautiful plat of the town, which was exhibited to everybody from the

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east as the county seat of the new county of Stark.  It was laid off in rectangular form, with wide streets, a large square in the center intended for the court house and jail, and other lots appropriated for church and school purposes.  They erected a large story and a half log house, which did not have a single piece of sawed timber; all was split and hewn.  The enterprise proved a failure, mainly because it was considered too far away from the center of the county.  The ground was level, had been cleaned of all underbrush, and for years, during the summer months, was a place of resort on Sundays for the young men and boys living miles around, to play ball and pitch quiots.
     Henry Loutzenheiser and John Rupert, brothers-in-law, from Westmoreland County, Penn., came out in the summer of 1807, and, with the help of a hireling, made a clearing on the southwest quarter of Section 11, and erected a cabin about twelve feet square.  Rupert made a clearing  on the adjoining quarter, and built a cabin the same year.  Loutzenheiser sold his land a few years after to Martin Houser, who had been a soldier in the war of the Revolution, and bought the quarter section with all of Nimishellentown.  Michael Rupert, uncle of Henry Loutzenheiser, married or lived with an Indian squaw; she had by him several children.  His brother, Martin Rupert, and cousin, Martin Houser, were both taken prisoners during the Revolutionary war by the Indians, while driving cattle to the army.
     In 1825, Henry Loutzenheiser built the two-story brick house yet standing in Louisville, the first building of brick in the township.  For many years he kept tavern here, sign of the spread eagle; the house was well known, and was a popular stopping-place for travelers.  At that day, most of the traveling was on horseback, and the usual charges for man and beast over night - supper, breakfast and lodging, and two horse feeds - was 50 cents.  The locality was known as "Loutzenheiser's," and was one of the places where "general muster" was held at stated periods.  John Augustine was the General; David Bair, of Paris Township, the Colonel, and Henry Loutzenheiser, Major.  Those were gala days, both for old and young.  The parade usually closed with a few fights, and in the evening there would be a dance.
     Henry Loutzenheiser was the father of twenty-five children, all living at one time; the product of three wives.   Notwithstanding latter day achievements, this feat stands unrivaled in the history of Stark County.  His first wife was Elizabeth Rupert;  second, Polly Hoover; third, Polly Spangler.  Daniel Brown, living on Section 25, same township, was the father of eighteen children.  During the summer of 1814, two of them, a boy and girl, the former eight, and the latter ten, were lost in the woods.  They were sent to bring up the cows.  Taking a path which led in the direction where the cattle were in the habit of grazing, they came to were it forked.  Here they disputed which was the right path, and as they would not agree, separated.  It appears both were mistaken as neither led in the direction of the cattle.  As a consequence, both of the children wandered on until lost, neither being able to find the way home.  The cattle returned without them.  The parents, becoming alarmed at their long absence, started to find them.  Night overtaking them, they aroused the neighbors and everybody that was able and could be spared turned out.  Through the long and dreary night they kept up a din of noises by shouting and blowing horns, in the hope of attracting the children, but no response came.  It was feared they had fallen a prey to some wild beast, as at that time there were bears, panthers and wolves roaming the forest.  Daylight came, and yet no tidings.  More persons were procured and the search continued.  About noon, the boy was found at a cabin, in the eastern part of Washington Township, which place he had reached but a short time before.  The girl was not found until the second day, and when first seen was in a thicket gathering berries, apparently as unconcerned as though she had just left home.  When questioned about how she had spent the nights, her reply was, that she had slept on a bed of leaves.  It appeared that she anticipated being looked for, and was apparently very little disconcerted.
     Nimishillen Township was organized in 1809.   The early records are lost, so that it is impossible to give a list of the first officers elected.  There are those still living who remember Daniel Mathias as one of the first Trustees, and Jacob Tombaugh as first Constable.  John Hoover was an early Justice of the Peace.  The northeastern part of the township attracted the most settlers, mainly because of the beautiful timber.  No larger chestnut and poplar trees could be

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found in the county.  The locality also abounded in ginseng, large quantities of which were collected and sold to the stores, from whence it was shipped East.  It was quite a source of revenue, and at that time, there was a popular belief that in China it was worth its weight in gold.
     The first grist and saw mill in the township was built by John Eby in 1811, on Nimishillen Creek, in Section 31.  As the country cleared up, and the supply of water began to fall off, the power became insufficient, and both the mills were finally abandoned.
     Among the early settlers not already mentioned were Mathias Bowers, and brother John; George Wertenberger, Ulrich Shively, John Thomas (the first blacksmith), Henry Breyfogle, Henry Warner, John Eby, Michael Trump (the first cabinet-maker and undertaker), John Weller, Harman and Jacob Koontz, Dewalt Bucher (the first tailor), Daniel, David and John Brown (brothers), John Haney, John Hildebrand, Jacob Baughman, William Hoover, Jacob Tombaugh.  Michael Ringer, Christian Sollenberger, the Obenours, Hiveleys and Warners.  About the first marriage was Abraham Metz to Sally Shively.  They were the parents of Dr. Metz, of Massillon, who was born in this township.
     The great eclipse of 1811, created quite a consternation among the settlers.  As they had no previous knowledge of its approach they were at a loss to account for the sudden darkness.  Some thought it indicative of an earthquake; others, that it was the end of the world.  Mrs. Mathews was away from home on that day, and, on her return, it began suddenly to change from sunshine to darkness.  It soon became so dark, that she was unable to see the path, and had to stop until the darkness passed away.  She was terribly frightened.  The falling stars of 1832, was another phenomenon that seriously disturbed those who had the opportunity of witnessing it.  It occurred between midnight and daylight, and some, who were out engaged in business not legitimate, regarded it as a manifestation of divine displeasure.
     Edward Carl, direct from "Ould Ireland," settled in the township in 1811.  He was a shoemaker and tanner, and started the first tanyard.  The Moffit brothers, James, Patrick, Richard and Thomas, early settlers, were clever men, and influential.  They were the first Catholics, and frequently held worship in private houses.
     In the spring of 1826, five French families of Alsace, by occupation agriculturists, gathered together their household utensils and farming implements, took ship at Havre de Grace, and, after a six weeks' voyage, landed in New York.  Before the colony were ready to leave New York, one family had only a single five-franc left, nor were any of the rest in a condition financially to help them, so the destitute family was compelled to remain in the city, and engage in work until they would earn sufficient to pay their way farther West.  The balance left via Hudson River, New York & Erie Canal to Buffalo, and thence by schooner to Cleveland, "a small town on a hill," as described by one of the company.  Here the families remained a month, quartered in a barn, while the men were traversing the country; looking up a place to settle.  It was in the heat of summer, that Theobald Frantz, the leader of the colony, and one other approached Canton from the north, when, at the first view of the town, he saw the cross on St. John's Catholic Church, and exclaimed "Je n'irai pas pllus loin; c'est ici que j'ai trouce la premiere croix depuis que nous avons quitte New York, et c'est ici, pres de cette croix, que ju m'etablirai."
     They straightway returned to Cleveland, and began making preparations to move their families and goods into Stark County.  This was before the construction of the Ohio Canal, and, as their route was overland, and as they had brought along wagons and harness from France, the first business in order was the purchase of horses.  In these, they were shamefully swindled, as, of the five purchased, not a single one could be relied upon as a true puller.  They would all balk, and several were vicious kickers.  In the first efforts to break them to work, Joseph Badeau was kicked in the bowels, from the effects of which he died in a few hours.  Notwithstanding these misfortunes and all their mishaps, they kept up courage and persevered.  In their trip to Canton, the horses in going up a hill, would frequently balk and refuse to pull, exhausting every effort to persuade them to pull, and failing, there was no alternative but to upload, and then all hands would assist, and by dint of pushing and pulling succeed in attaining the top of the hill, after which the wagon had to be reloaded.  They finally reached Canton, and obtained possession of a  vacant house on East Tuscarawas street for the families to occupy until the men could purchase permanent homes.  After reconnoitering the country on foot and on horseback, Theobald Frantz, Louis Garrot, Jean P. Moinet and the widow of Joseph Badeau all settled in Nimishillen Township, purchasing in Sections 10 and 15.  One of the five, named Jonare, purchased and settled in Jackson Township.  These were the first Catholic French who settled in the county.  There were a few Omish (Mennonite) French in the county a year or two before.  The reports they wrote back to their friends in France of their impressions of this country induced others to follow, and among the early French settlers of Nimishillen may be mentioned
François Bellot, Zeidor, Faufaunt, Pierre Cunira, Perrot, Chenot, Gerandeau, Favier, Barlet, Abadie, Garandot, Duprea, Favier, Cuniea, Adie and Mongary.
     It should be mentioned that by the time the families who came over first were settled, their money was exhausted, and some were compelled to engage in labor from home, in order to obtain means for support.  Frantz had eight children; two of the girls worked out, and two of the boys helped to dig the Ohio Canal, at $14 a month.  The father tramped out wheat for the neighbors, for the tenth. Mrs. Badeau was enciente at the time her husband was killed.  She invested her means  in the purchase of forty acres of land, and was working in the clearing when taken in labor.  In the woods, without shelter and alone, she had her child, now Frank Badeau, over fifty years of age.  He is probably the first Frenchman born in the county.
     There must be, at this time, several hundred French families residing in Nimishillen Township, forming an observable feature of the population.  As a class, they are industrious, social, inclined to hilarity, law-abiding, honest, pay their debts, and make good neighbors.  They readily assimilate with our native-born, and about the third generation their distinctive peculiarities are obliterated.
     Harrisburg was the first town in the township.  It was laid out in 1827, by Jacob Harsh.  A lame man by the name of Patterson brought the first store.  Following him, Jacob Wolfe and Jonas Hoover started a store and tavern together.  Wolfe took special charge of teh tavern, and it is said to have been kept not unlike the one run at a later day, by his namesake in the West, of which it is presumed our readers have heard.  David W. Rowan had a store in Harrisburg, in 1832, and after him, H. H. Myers, both from Canton.  The early physicians of the town were Dr. Abraham Stanley and Dr. Soloman Shrive.  Henry and Jacob Stambaugh, both farmers, supplied the preaching in the neighborhood.  They belonged to the United Brethren Church, and held worship in schoolhouses and barns.  Harrisburg was a more important place and was more widely known fifty years ago than it is now.  The railroad towns have drawn away the trade.  A post office was established under the name of Barryville, May 18, 1830, and Jacob Wolfe appointed Postmaster.  It was called Barryville because there was already a post office in the State named Harrisburgg, and there cannot, under the rules of the Post office Department, by two offices of the same name in the same State.
     Louisville was located in 1834, by Henry Loutzenheiser and Frederick Faint, joint proprietors, as land belonging to each constituted a part of the plat.  It was originally named Lewisville, after a son of Loutzenheiser, but on application for a post office it was ascertained there was already an office of that name in the State, and at the suggestion of the Post Office Department, the orthography of the names was changed to Louisville.  The post office was established Mar. 11, 1838, and Solomon A. Gorgas made Postmaster.
     The first organized church in the township was Catholic.  It should be mentioned that before this, a building designed for a church and schoolhouse was erected near Harrisburg, through the united effected near Harrisburg, through the united efforts of members belonging to the Lutheran and Reformed Churches.  Services were held in this building at irregular intervals, by both these denominations, but there never was a legal organization of either.  There was a Methodist Church erected in Harrisburg at an early period.
     About 1836, a building was erected in Louisville, upon land donated by James Moffit, under the supervision of the Dominican Father at that time in Canton.  The first priest stationed in Louisville was Rev. Mathias Wurtz, from Loraine; next came Rev. L. de Goesbriand.  During his pastorate, the congregation consisted of about forty French families, twenty German and twelve Irish - in all about 400 communicants.  During his stay the church building was enlarged, a tower built and a bell

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purchased.  In 1846, Rev. P. Pendeprat officiated.  He remained four years, and was succeeded by Rev. Marechal, who remained ut one year.  Then came Rev. L. F. D'Arcy, who was an enterprising, liberal and zealous man, as he built a schoolhouse, repaired the church and improved the grounds around, spending his private funds for the benefit of the congregation.  Rev. L. Hoffer, the present incumbent, succeeded D'Arcy in 1861.  Since his advent, an academy and college has been erected, and the congregation materially increased.
     There were living in the township as early as 1836, professors of religion who take the name of "Brethren in Christ."  Jacob Sollenberger, and a neighbor by the name of Rothrock, were among the first.  They did not have a building of their own until a late period.
     What is known as a Reformed Church was organized in Louisville in 1863.  The first members were Jonathan Slusser and wife, Adam Fogle, wife and daughters, Elenora and Emma, John and Andrew Sell.  The first pastor was Abram Miller, who served five years.  He was succeeded by Joshua H. Derr, who remained two and a half years.  Following him came J.  J. Leberman, who has continued since, now over eight years.  Number of communicants, 190.
     The United Brethren have a church in Louisville, but the statistics of their organization failed to reach us in time for publication.
     Nimishillen township has, up to the present time, enjoyed but little of the county official patronage, and that little was more in the way of honor than profit.  John Bowers was County Commissioner from 1819 to 1826, when the pay was from $20 to $25 a year, and no perquisites.  John Hoover served as Associate Judge one term, and two terms as a member of the Legislature, in 1822 and 1823.  At that time, the Legislature met on the first Monday in December.  With a few changes of underclothing, packed in a pair of saddle-bags, the member-elect would start from home on horse-back a week before the opening of the session.  It would take him four or five days to make the journey.  Then he wanted several days to look around for a boarding house, and find a place to winter his horse.  Once settled, he never thought of leaving his post of duty until the close of the session.  Such was the custom of our legislators in those primitive days.  Contrast them with the present.
     Among the leading attractions of Louisville is the woolen factory of Taylor & Stewart.  It was during the spring of 1872 that a joint stock company was organized for the purpose of establishing a woolen mill at that place.  The stockholders were C. L. Juilliard, H. T. Finney, John WErner, Elias Essig, J. W. Wertenerger, Dr. J. P. Shilling, L. T. Myers and Edward Shilling.  The mill was erected at a cost of about $17,000, including a 35-horse power steam engine.  The mill was sold to William Taylor in 1877, and he has remained the owner to the present.  Mr. Taylor took as a partner in the business, William Flinn, and two years afterward their connection was dissolved.  Owing to a desire on the part of Mr. Taylor to retire from business, the factory was leased to his son, John H., and John Stewart, who have actively carried on the business ever since.  Under the management of Messrs. Taylor & Stewart, the partnership has been quite successful, producing a superior quality of flannels and yarns.  They are making the manufacture of flannels a specialty, adhering to the plan of producing pure woolen goods, and this, no doubt, is one of the causes of their success.  Their fabrics are found in all the leading dry goods houses of Stark and adjoining counties.  Although young men, the proprietors of this establishment have, by their undivided attention, made it one of the best mills in the county, and one of the chief attractions of the place in which it is situated.
     In 1868, D. M. Slusser and J. W. Wertenberger commenced the manufacture of Ellis' patent baskets in what is now the plaining-mill of Essig & Shengle.  After a partnership of about eighteen months, Elias Essig was admitted to the firm.  Shortly after this, Mr. Slusser withdrew, and Wertenberger & Essig carried on the business until they were succeeded by Essig & Sluss.  It is now in operation under Essig & Hang in the same building in which it first originated.
     Elias Essig and Jacob Shengle formed a partnership, in 1875, for the purpose of establishing a planing-mill where Essig & Hang have their basket factory.  They occupy a two-story frame building, 30x50, with an engine-house and boiler room 18x30, also a warehouse about 20x40 feet.  They have all the requisite machinery for carrying on their business in its various branches, which is operated by a 20-horse power steam engine.  They do a general lumber business, supply building material, lath, shingles, sash, doors, blinds, etc.  The firm handle annually an average stock of 600,000 feet of rough and dressed lumber, 1,200,000 shingles, 1,300,000 lath, and they transact an annual business of not less than $15,000.  The wagon and carriage shop of C. Bonnot & Son was first started as a Champion Plow manufacturing establishment by J. H. Penney, M. Gibbs and Monroe Siberling, in 1871; but after a short period, the business was discontinued.  In 1874, this building was leased to Keim, Finney & Newhouse, who placed in the proper machinery and commenced the manufacture of linseed oil.  In 1876, Julliard & Co., purchased the business, and this firm in turn was succeeded by Keim & Sons in 1877.  Owing to a disadvantage in shipping together with considerable breakage of  machinery, this firm discontinued the business in 1878, and oil manufacturing in Louisville has not since been revived.
     The flouring ill of S. Flickinger was established in 1851 by Daniel Chapuis, who conducted the business a number of years, and was succeeded by Louis Faber, who in turn was succeeded by Xavier Paumier.  After him, the mill passed into the hands of the present owners, S. Flickenger and C. A. Newhouse.  This partnership continued about ten years, when Mr. Newhouse withdrew from the firm, and Mr. Flickinger has since been sole owner and proprietor.  He is a first-class miller, and with the help of his son, carries on a large trade of custom grinding.
     Geib & Pontius have a large merchant mill now under construction.  This building will be a two story frame engine room attached, 20x40 feet.  There will be a run of five stone in this mill; three for wheat, one for chop-feed, and one for middlings, all to be operated by a 70-horse power steam engine.  The resources of the surrounding country will prove this to be one of the leading mills of its kind in the county.
     P. B. Moinet erected a brewery in 1865.  He was succeeded by George Dilger, in 1876, who admitted Simon Menegay in 1878.  This firm turns out about about 2,000 barrels of beer per annum.
     Brick manufacturing is carried on quite extensively by A. V. Pontius, and Murley Dupont & Co.  These two yards keep employed a force of about twenty-five men, and turn out a superior quality of brick.  The supply is unequal to the demand.
     Rogers & Warstler, druggists of the place, manufacture the Peerless Condition Powders, a drug that is considered, among leading stockmen, the best of its kind in the market.  It has a wide sale, and is steadily growing in public favor.
     Besides the above, cigar making is carried on to a considerable extent by Peter C. Newhouse, J. C. Hartman, William Weber and Jacob S. Oberdorff.  Rinehart & Sons and C. Bonnot & Sons manufacture and repair wagons, buggies, etc.  G. F. Baumann & Sons, tin and copper smiths, dealers in stoves, etc., have a large run in roofing houses with slate and tin.  S. Paquelet deals in and manufactures furniture, and J. G. Prenot is the Louisville harness maker.  There are two hotels in the town - the Commercial and the Washington House.  The former is kept by J. D. Baker, and the later by J. D. Baker, and the latter by Geo. Nunamaker.  Both are doing well.
     The place supports two first-class livery stables; one owned by Lycurgus Wilson, the other by Mathias Walker.  They both keep first-class turnouts, and are reasonable in their charges.  The merchants of the place are Keim & Sons and Pierson & Metzger, hardware; Julius Thurin, Julius Schwob, D. M. Sluss and L. F. Davis, dry goods and groceries; D. M. Slusser and J. M. D'Ostroph, groceries and provisions; Shilling & Son and Rogers & Warstler, druggists; Hannah Conrod and O. Clark, restaurants.  Mrs. A. Friday and Slusser & McCoy supply the neighborhood with millinery.   Louisville Deposit Bank was established the spring of 1881, by Keim & Sons.  They do a general banking business.  For the past ten years the Keims have done more to build up the town than any other firm.  They are enterprising and intelligent citizens, and a credit to the town in which they reside.  Taking in consideration the wealth of the surrounding country, and the enterprise of the citizens of the town Louisville can truly be said to be one of the leading towns of its size in the State.  Its present officers are - Mayor, J. H. Penney; Clerk, R. T. Rothrock; Treasurer, Joseph Moinet; Marshal, C. Gaume; Street Commissioner, M. S. Stambaugh; Councilmen, C. L. Juilliard, Elias Essig, Lewis Newbauer, A. Poupney, L. P. Menegay and N. Bonvolot.








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