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Pickaway County, Ohio
History & Genealogy


History of Pickaway County
Source:  History of Franklin & Pickaway Counties, Ohio
Illustrations and Biographical Sketches
Published by Williams Bros. 1880


* CIRCLEVILLE - 175 * MADISON - 350 * SALT CREEK - 249
* DARBY - 287 * MONROE - * SCIOTO - 323
* DEER CREEK - 292 * MUHLENBERG - 333 * WALNUT - 276
* HARRISON - 342 * PERRY - 310 * WASHINGTON - 300
* JACKSON - 282 * PICKAWAY - 265 * WAYNE - 318


       * CHURCHES

       * SCHOOLS
       * SOCIETIES
       * OTHER
       * TOWNSHIP
            * SETTLEMENTS



     The name given to this township (after having first been given to the city which it contains, and which constitutes the county seat of Pickaway county,) is designed to perpetuate the memory of one of the most remarkable relics of a pre-historic age, found by the first European explorers of the Ohio Valley.  The name Circleville, together with a drawing and description, first published in the Archaelogia Americana, in 1820, and reproduced in several historical works since that time, is now one of the few existing memorials of that interesting relic.  Being thus associated with the name of the place, it is fitting that a somewhat minute description of it should be given at the very outset of our history of Circleville.
     In the centre of the territory now embraced within the corporate limits of the city, once stood an extensive earth-structure, the work of the Mound Builders.  It is generally supposed to have been a military fortification, although its design can be only a matter of conjecture.  It consisted of two parts; the larger and more important one being in the form of an exact square, fifty-five rods on each side, and tangent to the circle, at the middle point of its western side.  It is the circular "fort" (co-called) which occupies the central portion of the city - the centre of the circle being at the point where Court and Main streets now cross each other; and the square extending out toward the city limits, beyond Washington street, in an easterly direction from this point.
     The circular inclosure was surrounded by two walls and a deep ditch between them.  [Some of the oldest inhabitants insist that there was not, within their recollection, any appearance of a regular wall, or embankment inside of the ditch; but we follow the printed accounts.]  It is, of course, impossible to guess how high the walls were originally; since, when first discovered, they had for unknown ages, been gradually worn down by the action of the elements and other causes.  But, when first measured, they were somewhat more than twenty feet high, on an average, measuring from the bottom of the ditch, which was about twenty feet in width.  On the side not adjacent to the ditch, the walls were, at this time, about six feet in height.  They were evidently made nearly perpendicular at first, and were constructed, for the most part, of clay, which was found near by, or thrown out of the ditch, and was of an excellent quality.  Some think it was originally made into bricks and dried in the sun.  However that may be, it was largely used in making the bricks of which many of the buildings, now occupying the same ground were constructed.
     In the centre of the circular work stood the mound of considerable size, with a large semi-circular pavement extending half-way around it, on the eastern side; looking toward the only opening in the circular walls.  This opening was at the point of contact with the square "fort," into which it formed an entrance.  The single wall (which was without any ditch) inclosing the square was, at the time of its discovery, about ten feet in height.  It had eight openings; one at each corner, and one at the middle of each side - that in the western side being the one which led into the circle.  Before each of these openings, at a distance of about two rods, on the inside of the square was a mound circular at the base, and about five feet in height, except the one before the entrance into the circle, which was considerably larger and higher.  The others were about forty feet in diameter, at the base, and about twenty at the summit.  The writer in the Archaelogia takes it for granted that these small mounds "were intended for the defence of the openings."  But this does not seem to us by any means certain.  At any rate, the one before the entrance into the circle could not have been so intended, since it is not conceivable that the occupants would have attempted to defend the square "fort" after the circular one had been captured and filled by an enemy.
     We notice that in the representation of the two forts contained in the  Circleville Union Herald for August 2, 1878, and evidently copied from that in the  Archaelogia just mentioned, the small mound at the opening between the two forts, is placed within the circle.  Whether or not this change of position was made because the author of the very valuable historical notice in the paper referred to perceived that that was the only position in which the said mound could be of any use as a defence of the opening we do not know; but certain it is that, in the copy of the original drawing, made by Howe, in his "Historical Collections of Ohio," this mound is inside of the square.  Since we have intimated a doubt as to the correctness of the prevalent notion that these enclosures were purely for military purposes, we shall, perhaps, be pardoned for presenting, at some length, our reasons for believing that they were designed mainly for religious or festive occasions.
     Mr. Isaac Smucker (who is certainly a very respectable authority in matters pertaining to American archaeology), in his treatise on the "Pre-historic Races and Pre-territorial History of Ohio," which constitutes in introduction to the "Annual Report of the Secretary of State" on the statistics of Ohio, for the year 1877, makes the following observations as to the inclosures of the Mound Builders:
     "Inclosures are of several kinds; one class being known as military or defensive works; another as parallel embankments, or covered ways; and the third as sacred inclosures.  Under the general title of inclosures are also walls of circumvallation, or ramparts, constructed for military or defensive works, while others were doubtless walls surrounding the residence of the reigning monarch; perchance others were erected for the performance within them of their national games and amusements, and perhaps many, also, served a purpose in the performance of their religious rites and ceremonies, and facilitated indulgence in some superstitious practices."
     Father on he says:
     "Defensive inclosures are of irregular form, are always on high ground, and in naturally strong position, frequently on the summits of hills and steep cliffs, and are often strengthened by exterior ditches.
Then he proceeds, quoting the American Cyclopaedia:
     "The walls generally wind around the borders of the elevations they occupy, and when the nature of the ground renders some points more accessible than others, the height of the wall and the depth of the ditch at these weak points are proportionally increased.  The gateways are narrow and few in number, and well guarded by embankments of earth placed a few yards inside of the openings or gateways, and parallel with them, and projecting somewhat beyond them at each end, thus fully covering the entrances, which, in some cases, are still further protected by projecting walls on either side of them.  These works are somewhat numerous, and indicate a clear appreciation of the elements, at least, of fortification, and unmistakably point out the purpose for which they were constituted."
If this description of defensive inclosures is to be relied upon, it is obvious that the works under consideration must have belonged to some other class.  Instead of being of "irregular form," they are so strikingly regular as to make it a matter of wonder how a people as rude and uncultivated as the Mound Builders are generally supposed to have been, could possibly have laid them out.  They are not on "High Ground," and there are, in the immediate neighborhood, many stronger positions than that in which they are located.  In fact, no modern general would think of constructing an earthwork in such a position, unless he had no choice of situations, or unless the immediate presence or threatened approach of an enemy compelled him to fortify that very place.  The gateways, instead of being "few in number," are so numerous as to amount to an absolute absurdity in fortification; and the so-called defences of these gateways, or openings, are not "embankments," "projecting somewhat beyond them at each end," but small, circular mounds, apparently of no greater diameter than the width of the openings.
   But let us see now what the authority above-quoted says about inclosures which were not designed for military purposes:
     "Sacred enclosures," says  Mr. Smucker, "are mainly distinguished from those of a military character, by the regularity of their form, and by their more frequent occurrence.  They are of all shapes and forms, and when moats or ditches exist, they are invariably found inside of the embankments.  Sacred inclosures are generally in the form of geometrical figures, of surprising accuracy, such as circles, squares, hexagons, octagons, ellipses, parallelograms, and of various others.  They are sometimes found within military inclosures, and evidently had some connection with the religious ideas and ceremonies of their builders.  Frequently there is situated in the center of this class of works a mound or elevation, supposed to have served the purpose of an altar upon which sacrifices were offered, or which was, at least in some way, used in conducting their religious services.  Within those sacred inclosures were doubtless celebrated religious festivals, and upon those central "high places," or altars, were undoubtedly performed, by priestly hands, the rites and ceremonies demanded by their sacrificial, their idolatrous religion. * * * Some archaeologists, however, maintain that many works called sacred inclosures were erected for, and used as places of amusement, where our predecessors of pre-historic times practiced their national games, and celebrated their great national events; where they held their national festivals, and indulged in their national jubilees, as well as performed the ceremonials of their religion.  And it may be that those (and there are many such) within which no central elevation or altar occurs, where erected for the purposes last named, and not exclusively, if at all, for purposes connected with their religion, and are, therefore, erroneously called sacred inclosures.  Other ancient peoples, if, indeed, not all the nations of antiquity, had their national games, amusements, festivals and jubilees, and why not the Mound Builders, too?  Notably in this regard, the ancient Greeks may be named, with whom, during the period known as the "lyric Age of Greece,' the Olympic, the Pythian, the Nemean, and the Isthmian games became national festivals.  And without doubt the Mound Builders, too, had their national games, amusements, festivals and jubilees, and congregated within their enclosures to practice, celebrate and enjoy them."
Another quotation, a little further on, must suffice:
     "The amount of labor bestowed upon those of their works that were erected in the interest of their religion, shows a strong tendency towards superstitious belief.  They doubtless offered up animals in sacrifice, as a part of their religious ceremonies, and it may be that human sacrifices were not unknown among them.  Prisoners of ware are thus disposed of sometimes by people and nations who have attained to as high a grade of civilization as that reached by the Mound Builders.  The sacrificial character of their religion is clearly established.  The late Dr. Foster hesitated not to say that the Mound Builders were worshipers of the elements; that they worshiped the sun, moon and stars, and that they offered up human victims as an acceptable sacrifice to the gods they worshiped!  He deduced this fact from the charred and calcined bones which cover their altars.  Other high authorities also unhesitatingly assert that there is convincing proof that they were fire-worshipers."
So exactly does this account tally with the drawings and descriptions which have come down to us of the ancient works at Circleville, that we were actually surprised to find specimens of inclosures obviously designed for religious and festive purposes.  Here was the surprising symmetry of form characteristic of such inclosures.  Around the square was the one walk, with no moat or ditch on the outside, and perforated by its numerous entrances.  Here was the circle, with its deep moat inside of the principal wall - even if there was, in reality, more than one - for, as we have stated, the recollection of some of the oldest inhabitants, who often passed over the ground before the embankments were removed, is, upon this point, at variance with the printed accounts.  And, above all, here, exactly in the center of the circle, stood the "high place," with its semi-circular pavement, composed of gravel and smooth stones taken from the adjacent streams - a mound utterly without significance in the military point of view, but entirely intelligible if regarded as an altar for offering up sacrifices, or for the performance of other religious or festive rites.  That it was an altar, and that it had been used for offering up human sacrifices, is rendered extremely probably from the fact that, at different depths below the surface, charred skeletons were found lying upon wood ashes and charcoal, mingled with various articles, such as arrow heads, burnt bricks, plates of mica, etc.  It would seem, from the positions in which these relics were found, and from the various depths at which they lay, that, after each burning, the fire, the charred remains of the victim, and whatever else was left unconsumed, were covered with earth; and that the mound had gradually been formed by this process, beginning, perhaps, from the original surface of the ground.  How high it may have been when last used by the people who constructed it, we have, of course, no means of knowing.  When, however, it was first seen by Europeans, it was about ten feet high, four rods or more in diameter at the base, and about two rods at the summit.
     If it be asked whether the theory of the religious and festive character of these works implies that the builders had absolutely no thought of defence in their construction, we rely that this inference is by no means necessary, since the inclosures may have been for the purposes named; while, at the same time, the embankments about both the square and the circle, and the ditch about the latter, may all have been intended, in part at least, to guard those engaged in celebrating their worship or their games from the intrusion of those of their own people who were not entitled to participate in them, and also from the attacks of their enemies.  It must be admitted that the thought most likely to be suggested to the mind of one viewing such works for the first time, is that they were designed as military fortifications.  But if inclosures were to be made for other purposes at all, it is surely most likely that such a people as the Mound Builders were, would construct them of earth.  In the celebration of their religious rites, a plenty of deep water might be necessary for the practice of those ablutions and immersions which, in all ages of the world, have occupied so prominent a place in the religions of various nations.  If so, the ditch dug on the inside of the inclosure would furnish both the necessary water and the material for the needed embankment.
     For the reasons set forth above, we seriously incline to the opinion that the square inclosure was designed for the celebration of games and other secular festivals; that the small mounds before the openings had some sort of connection with the games celebrated in the inclosure; and that the circle was devoted mainly, if not entirely, to the performance of religious rites.
   This will be an appropriate place in which to mention a remarkable mound that stood but a short distance outside of the circle, about forty rods in a southwesterly direction from the sacrificial mound already described.  We follow the description made by Mr. Atwater in his Western Antiquities, published in 1833.
     This mound was more than sixty feet in height, and stood on the summit of a large hill, to which it was joined so skillfully that the whole appeared to be artificial.  It must have been the common cemetery in which the dead of the neighboring people, for several generations, were buried, since it contained "an immense number of human skeletons, of all ages and sizes."  The skeletons were laid horizontally, with their heads generally toward the centre and their feet toward the outside of the mound.  A considerable part of this work was still standing when Mr. Atwater wrote, uninjured, except by time.  In it were found, besides the skeletons, stone axes and knives "and several ornaments with holes through them, by means of which, with a cord passing through these perforations, they could be worn by their owners."
     On the south side of this mound, and only a short distance from it, was a semi-circular ditch or trench, some six feet or more in depth, but nearly filled up to a level with the surrounding surface.  On being opened, there were discovered in it large quantities of human bones, evidently of warriors who had fallen in some destructive battle.  This conclusion seems necessary from the fact that the bones were those of persons who had attained their full size; whereas, in the mound adjoining young and old had been buried indiscriminately; and also from the fact that he bodies had been thrown into the trench without order, and as if in great haste.
     The student of archaeology will never be able to contemplate the obliteration of all these interesting relics without a feeling of regret, not unmixed with indignation.  When land was so abundant and so cheap, why should no the county of Pickaway, among its first acts as a corporation, have purchased the ground covered by these relics, and set it apart for all time as the imperishable monument of a perished race?  Overgrown, as it was, with beautiful forest trees, it might, without erasing one mark of its original character, have been changed into a park, more unique and attractive than any public grounds now to be found in the State of Ohio.  Here, in the square inclosure, our young men might have met in friendly contest to practice their athletic sports, on the very spot devoted, countless ages before, to a similar purpose.  And although it might not have been thought seemly to perform any of the solemn acts exclusively appropriate to our holy religion, within the circular inclosure once set apart to the performance of heathen rites; yet a grateful people might properly have met there to celebrate their national anniversaries, amid scenes and associations which could not have failed to heighten their gratitude to God for the countless blessings which, in these latter days and in this wonderful land, He has vouchsafed to them.
     PAGES 178 & 179 MISSING

Page 180 mentions the changing of the looks of the city...... as follows:

..........by people from the country as a hitching and feeding place for their teams; thus attracting to the same center the hogs and other domestic animals which were allowed "the freedom of the city," and making the Pickaway seat of justice a rather poor gem in a worse setting.
     But with however much of sincerity these objections may have been urged, and however important they may have seemed to those who urged them; it is not at all probably that any change in the town plat would ever have been made, if it had not occurred to somebody that by laying out the circular portion in a square form, several acres of waste ground - in the center of the circle, in the four angles where the square portion joined upon the circle, and in some of the avenues and alleys - would become available for building lots, and yield a fair profit over and above what the county would charge for it.
     It was doubtless a fair business transaction, and not to be censured (however much it may be regretted), except upon aesthetic grounds.  An act of the legislature, authorizing the change of plat, had first to be obtained; and then it could not be made without the consent of all the property owners within the space affected by it.  Many of the lots were purchased out and out by the parties making the change, and then resold after it was made.  Of the lots unsold, some were increased in size, and others diminished by the changes; and the owners of the former made, and those of the latter received, suitable compensation.
     The buildings fronting the streets or avenues which were to be vacated (and which, of course, made acute angles with the main streets), were either removed, torn down, or changed in position, so as to face the new streets.  One only, of any prominence, remains in its original position, as a memento of old times.  This is the fine brick residence of the late Dr. Hawkes - still owned by his widow.  It originally fronted on "Bastile avenue," which seems to have been the aristocratic street of the old town, and which ran a\at an angle of forty-five degrees with West Main street.  When the now Franklin street was laid out parallel to Main, it passed the front of the building at the same angle.  This gives to one of the finest residences in Circleville a very singular, but by no means unpleasing, appearance; and it is pointed out to strangers, with much apparent satisfaction, by the present generation, as a proof that the name of their town was not always a misnomer.
     Two "enabling acts" were passed by the legislature to authorize an alteration of the town plat of the town of Circleville.
     The first act was passed by the legislature March 29, 1837.
     Nothing, however, was done toward the squaring of the circle, during the year named.  We conclude it was found difficult to obtained the consent of all the property owners, in all the entire circle, to the proposed change; for, in the next year, March 1, 1838, the legislature was induced to pass a supplementary act, authorizing the friends of the measure to proceed as soon as the consent of all the owners of any part (meaning, doubtless, any fourth part), of the circle should be obtained.  This act, as did the former, provides for the reservation of ground for the erection of a court house.
     Soon after this, viz.: on the twenty-third of March, 1838, on application of Andrew Huston, Edson B. Olds and Thomas Huston, the southeast quarter of the circular portion of the town was vacated by order of the court of common pleas, and Daniel Driesbach, director of the town, was directed to convey to the said parties all the interest of Pickaway county in said part of Circleville, for the consideration of seven hundred and fifty dollars.  The next day they filed their plat in the recorder's office; and, on the thirtieth of the same month, the director conveyed to them, by deed, the interest of the county, as directed.
     On the fifteenth of the following September, similar steps were taken by the same parties, for squaring the northwest quarter of the circle, receiving their deed from the county October 4th, for the same consideration as above.
     The process of building the town in the new form must have gone on slowly; for after the steps taken (as described above) for squaring the southeast and northwest quarters, eleven years elapsed before anything was done toward squaring the remainder of the circle.  The parties at length undertaking it were John Cradlebaugh, E. B. Olds, Francis Kinnear, and others, known as "The Circleville Squaring company."  After they had made a satisfactory arrangement with the property holders in the northeast quarter, they obtained a deed from the county for its interest in the same, August 17, 1849, for seventy-five dollars, and then proceeded to lay it out in lots of rectangular form.  Why the consideration was so much less than that paid for each of the other two quarters, is not stated; but the commissioners doubtless decided that that was all the purchasers could afford to pay.
     The squaring of the southwest quarter was undertaken by W. W. Bierce alone.  He secured an order from the court for that purpose, and filed his plat in the recorder's office, September 1, 1854, but did not obtain his deed until March 6, 1856.  No mention is made of any consideration allowed for it, and doubtless the price was merely nominal, sine it was from this quarter that ground was reserved for the new court house.
     It will thus be seen that it took eighteen years to square the circle, even on paper; and how long it was after the date of last deed, till the final change was made in the position of the buildings and in the form of the lots, we are not informed.  The account of taking down the old court house, and the building of the new, will be found elsewhere.
     The grading of the streets and of building-lots has gradually effaced every trace of the two ancient inclosures, with a slight and solitary exception in regard to each.  A short distance in the rear of the court house is a deep hollow, which is undoubtedly a remnant of the circular ditch, and at the southeast corner of Franklin and Pickaway streets (as mentioned below) is a piece of the square embankment, perhaps three or four rods in length.  With these two exceptions, every relic of those celebrated works is lost.
     The line of the two inclosures, as marked by existing objects, is thus described in the Union-Herald of August 2, 1878, from which we have already quoted:
     "The center of the circle was the center of the square at the intersection of Court and Main streets.  The circle and square were joined, or rather the gateway, as the opening between them was called, was in the street a little west of the point where the alley crosses Main street as the Central Presbyterian church.  Starting at this point, the ditch, which was the circumference of the circle, ran under a part of the church, under the rear of Mr. Scovil's house, curving around to McClaren's livery stable and Bauder's carriage shop, crossing the street between Rauder's and the Foresman corner and Pinckney street diagonally to T. K. Brunner's, through the rear of the Jones lot, on West Main street, through Jesse Ward's and the Tibbs barber shop, through the Steele-Jones block, and the Martin property, and diagonally to Jerome Wolfley's, north of the court house, crossing to Mrs. Nightengale's residence, through the Brubeck carriage shops, and diagonally across Franklin street, to the rear of Ruggle's lot. and through it to the beginning.
     This circuit was the line of the ditch described above, and which was full of water to a depth ranging from three to ten feet.  The banks were very steep, and only at a few places was the ditch fordable.  The embankment was overgrown with immense trees, and so thickly covered with vines and bushes that it was almost impenetrable.  Here and there the cattle had made trails down to the water and at these places  horsemen were in the habit of crossing, the path winding down sidewise.  Within the circle the growth of timber and bushes was quite dense.
     We now go to the square, the limits of which we can not so clearly define, but sufficiently so to give a fair idea.  The face next to the circle was on the line of the alley next to the Central church, extending south to Franklin street (lower side), and north to Watt street.  The south line ran along parallel with the south side of Franklin street, extending to a point a few rods east of Washington street.  The only remains of the old embankment now visible is the elevated ground near which the little cabin known as Mrs. White's house, stands, at the corner of Pickaway and Franklin streets.  The north line ran along Watt street east from H. R. Heffner's residence, a distance of fifty-five rods.  The eastern boundary running north and south, crossed Main street a little east of Washington street, the old elm tree, well remembered by many, which stood in the pavement, being just inside of the embankment.
     The people of Circleville are indebted to Mr. G. F. Wittich (who came to this place, with his parents, from Germany, in 1836) for the only pictorial representation that was ever made of the old town.  It is a bird's eye view in water collors, painted mostly from memory, but pronounced very accurate by all the old inhabitants.  Considering that Mr. Wittich never had any instruction, and but very little practice, in drawing and painting, the work is highly creditable to his taste and skill.  It has been lithographed, and doubtless, in coming times, copies of it will possess an antiquarian interest and value.  [See page 174.]


     As already stated, Circleville was laid out as the county seat of Pickaway county, and a nucleus of the future city was formed early in the autumn of 1810; but it was not until more than four years after this time that an act was passed by the legislature of the State, erecting the youthful village into a town corporate.  Of the growth of the community, during this brief anti-municipal period, no records remain.  Its population, at the end of this period, can be only a matter of conjecture; but as it appears to have had about forth families at the start, if we allow it the same, as an annual increase, for the next four years, it must have comprised, at the time of its incorporation, about six, or seven hundred souls.
     We have not been able to find any record of the election held in accordance with an act passed by the legislature, Dec. 24, 1814, authorizing an election to be held, nor can any of the officers then elected.  But in order to contrast the machinery of the old town organization with that of the city to which the corporation was afterwards changed, we append the names of the officers elected under the old regime several years later.
     The town officers elected in 1830 were as follows:
Mayor (then properly called president), W. B. Thrall; recorder, E. B. Olds; trustees, William McArthur, George Crook, Joseph Olds, Jacob H. Lutz, and Erastus Webb.
     The organization formed in 1815 continued for thirty-eight years; that is to say, until 1853, in which year, on the twenty-first of March, the town council passed the following resolution:
     Resolved, That the town of Circleville, by its council, does hereby determine and elect to be classed as and to become a city of the second class, under the provisions of the act of the general assembly of this State, passed May 3, 1852, entitled "An act to provide for the organization of cities and incorporate villages, and the act amendatory thereto, passed March, 1853."
     The city records, containing the account of the election which was held in accordance with this:  resolution have (as it seems to us, with most strange and culpable carelessness) been lost or destroyed.  But we have been so fortunate as to find a file of the Circleville Herald, from which we learn that, on the fourth of April, 1853, the following officers were elected under the new city organization:  Mayor, Z. R. Martin; treasurer, W. Baker; solicitor, H. N. Hedges; marshal, S. Barncord; councilmen, William Van Heyde, William Doane, W. W. Bierce, and Allen Myers.
     To show how much more complex the municipal government has become since that time, we conclude our notice of the city corporation with the following official directory of the city of Circleville for 1879:
     Mayor, I. P. Todd; marshal, Jacob Brown; solicitor, J. Wheeler Lowe; civil engineer, C. C. Neibling; street commissioner, Thomas Heiry.  Members of Council:  First ward, James Brobeck, Michael Hoover; second ward, C. A. Helwagen, Charles E. Groce; third ward, Edward Smith, E. P. Strong; fourth ward, Thomas Hamilton, Fred. Warner; fifth ward, George MAy, George Krinn; president of council, Ed. Smith; vice-president, C. A. Helwagen; clerk, R. P. Dreisbach; treasurer, county treasurer.  Standing Committees:  Streets, alleys and nuisances, James Brobeck, C. A. Helwagen, E. P. Strong, Thomas Hamilton, Fred Warner; public grounds and buildings, C. A. Helwagen, Thomas Hamilton, George Krinn, Charles E. Groce; market house and markets, George May, C. E. Groce, Fred. Warner, M. Hoover; fire department, Charles E. Groce, James Brobeck, George Krinn, Thomas Hamilton; claims, C. A. Helwagen, Thomas Hamilton, George Krinn, M. Hoover; gas posts and lights, George May, Fred Warner, George Krinn, E. P. Strong.   Fire Department:  Chief engineer, W. H. Nicholas; first assistant, T. N. Caskey; second assistant, Charles McLain; first engineer, steamer Circleville, Louis F. Dresher; second engineer, steamer Buckeye, Andrew Rudel; fireman, William M. Todd.  Board of Health: Mayor I. P. Todd, president ex officio, Dr. E. D. Bowers, George H. Fickardt, William E. Bolin, George Davenport, John Boyer, William Doane.  City Library Board:  Citizens, W. M. Anderson, W. B. Marfield, W. M. Drum; members of council, Charles E. Groce, Charles A. Helwagen, Michael Hoover. 
     Council meets the first and third Wednesdays of each month.




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